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Ultrasonics Level 1 & 2
Ultrasonics Level 1

PREREQUISITE: Registrants must satisfy all prerequisites that pertain to this training course.

TRAINING OBJECTIVES: This course provides a basic knowledge of ultrasonic testing fundamentals sufficient to enable the technician to carry out ultrasonic testing to established procedures under the supervision of Level 2 or Level 3 personnel.

APPLICABLE STANDARDS: This course meets the training syllabus requirements of CAN/CGSB-48.9712, ISO 9712 and SNT-TC-1A.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF LEVEL 1 PERSONNEL (AS PER CGSB): Level 1 personnel are defined as personnel who properly perform specific calibrations and specific evaluations for acceptance or rejection determinations, according to written instructions, and record results. Level 1 carry out industrial ultrasonics under the supervision of Level 2 or Level 3 personnel and shall receive the necessary instructions from a Level 2 or Level 3 individual.

COURSE OUTLINE:
  1. Introduction
    • Historical perspective of the use of ultrasound
    • Comparison with other commonly used NDT methods

  2. Fundamental Properties of Ultrasound
    • Definition of ultrasonic vibrations
    • Relationship of frequency velocity and wavelength
    • Diffraction theory
    • Modes of particle vibration
    • Ultrasound uses

  3. Generation of Ultrasonic Waves
    • Piezoelectric crystal types and characteristics
    • Search unit construction
    • Search unit characteristics: resolution; sensitivity
    • Search unit types: single element; dual element; Angle beam

  4. Test Material Characteristics
    • Velocity
    • Sound attenuation
    • Acoustic impedance

  5. Sound Beam Characteristics
    • Dead zone; Near zone; Far zone
    • Intensity variations
    • Probe diameter and frequency effect

  6. Angular Incidence
    • Reflection
    • Transmission
    • Refraction
    • Mode conversion
    • Critical angles
    • Snell's Law
  1. Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques
    • Through transmission
    • Pulse echo
    • Angle beam
    • Contact testing
    • Immersion testing

  2. Ultrasonic Testing Equipment
    • Basic pulse echo instrument
    • Control functions and uses
    • Information displays: A scan, B scan, C scan, digital readouts
    • Computer enhanced displays

  3. Ultrasonic Reference Blocks
    • Area amplitude blocks
    • Distance amplitude blocks
    • International Institute of Welding (IIW) block
    • Miniature angle beam calibration block
    • Uses of artificial reflectors compared

  4. Inspected Part Variations
    • Effect of surface roughness
    • Effect of surface coatings
    • Surface curvature
    • Parallelism
    • Grain size

  5. Discontinuity Variations
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Orientation
    • Distance from entry surface

NOTE: Participants are requested to have a calculator capable of scientific notation. Safety shoes are mandatory for all laboratory work.

Ultrasonics Level 2

PREREQUISITE: Registrants must satisfy all prerequisites that pertain to this training course.

TRAINING OBJECTIVES: This course provides the in-depth knowledge in the principles of ultrasonic testing and the fundamentals of engineering, materials and components, such that the technician will be able to:

  • identify the suitability of ultrasonic testing for all materials and inspection applications;
  • develop inspection techniques and prepare procedures that can be followed by a Level 1 technician;
  • document results of the analysis;
  • be familiar with all regulatory codes and specifications for ultrasonic testing and their intent.

APPLICABLE STANDARDS: This course meets the training syllabus requirements of CAN/CGSB-48.9712, ISO 9712 and SNT-TC-1A.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF LEVEL 2 PERSONNEL (as per CGSB): Level 2 personnel are defined as personnel who perform and/or direct industrial Ultrasonics according to established or recognized procedures and are responsible for the Ultrasonic method or technique used and for the interpretation of the test method.

COURSE OUTLINE:
  1. Basic Theory
    • Sound as energy
    • The source, the medium and the receiver
    • Wave motion
    • The sound frequency spectrum
    • Relationship of velocity, frequency and wavelength

  2. Fundamentals of Pulse Echo
    • Basic operation of a pulse echo system
    • Pulse length and considerations for penetration and resolution requirements
    • Definition of penetration and resolution
    • Pulse frequency / pulse damping
    • Pulse repetition frequency
    • Equipment for pulse echo
    • The piezoelectric phenomenon
    • The "A" scan presentation
    • Basic design and operation of a general purpose ultrasonic flaw detector
    • Basic design and operation of transducers
    • Types of waves and their characteristics
    • Refraction and mode conversion

  3. Advanced Theory
    • Practical consideration of sound velocity
    • Acoustic impedance and practical considerations
    • Practical consideration of pulse repetition frequency (PRF)
    • Behaviour of sound energy at point of reflection and refraction
    • Refraction index
    • Construction of a typical transducer catalogue
    • Transducer technology
    • Beam physics
  1. Applied Ultrasonic Testing
    • Technique development / wrought products; welds; heavy castings
    • Geometrics
    • Review of the basic operation of an immersion testing facility; the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques
    • Focus transducer technology
    • Beam profiling and optimum pressure zones for different focus
    • Calculating minimum water path distance and optimum water path distance
    • Distance Amplitude Correction (DAC)
    • Sizing method for flaws larger than the beam diameter
    • Evaluation of flaws for type of defect

  2. Calibration of Instrumentation
    • Review of the basic requirements of ASTM E317-85 and latest revisions
    • Performance of the following calibrations using the immersion technique: horizontal linearity / vertical linearity; near surface resolution / far surface resolution; sensitivity / signal to noise ratio
    • Documentation of results
    • Disposition procedures for equipment found "out of calibration"

  3. Codes and Specifications
    • Interpretation of codes and specifications in common use

NOTE: Participants are requested to have a calculator capable of scientific notation. Safety shoes are mandatory for all laboratory work.

Upcoming Course Dates Guaranteed to Run
Ultrasonics Level 1 & 2 Day Courses in Saint John, NB :
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